Pest and beneficial insects in apple orchards

My latest paper is out. It’s a leftover from my last postdoc at Charles Sturt Uni where I was working on ecosystem services in SE Australian apple orchards with Gary Luck and PhD student Rebecca Peisley – see her blog posts on her work here.

Our main research question for the project was to calculate the net outcome, in terms of yield, of all the positive and negative effects of animal interactions across a growing season. You can read our previous paper on those results here.

In this new paper we looked at another interaction, the influence of landscape vegetation and orchard ground cover on different invertebrate groups. I really enjoyed this project as it was an opportunity to explore an idea I had been thinking about for a while. I first got interested in orchard ground cover during my PhD, comparing wild pollinators in almond orchards with and without living ground cover. Continue reading

PhD opportunity!

PhD Opportunity: Ecosystem Services Networks in Multifunctional Landscapes

 Supervisors: Dr Manu Saunders, Dr Romina Rader; University of New England

We are looking for candidates interested in applying for a PhD scholarship through the University of New England, Armidale. Candidates interested in insect ecology, landscape ecology, ecosystem services and environmental modelling are encouraged to apply. Experience with entomological sampling, particularly flying insects, will be highly regarded.

This interdisciplinary project will integrate theory and concepts from ecology, economics and agricultural science to better understand how to sustainably manage multifunctional landscapes that support agricultural production, nature conservation and human well-being. The project can be tailored to the successful candidate’s interests and could be predominantly field-based, modelling-based, or a mix of both. Field work will be mostly around northern New South Wales in a variety of land uses, including remnant forest, berry farms, dairy farms and mixed cropping.

Candidates must be an Australian or New Zealand citizen (or have Australian Permanent Residency). Willingness to work independently and as part of a team are important qualities. The applicant must be proficient in spoken and written English, have a current driver’s license and a First Class Honours or Masters level qualification in ecology, entomology, zoology or related area. The preferred applicant should also have a demonstrated commitment to science communication and outreach and an interest in natural history. Selection of applicants will be based on merit.

The successful PhD candidate will receive operating funds up to 10K, a new computer and access to conference funding.

To apply, or for any questions, contact Dr Manu Saunders:

For more information on our research: and

Applications should include a CV, a list of any publications (including outreach), and a cover letter describing your background and interest in the project.

Scholarship applications through UNE close 29 September 2017:

Applied vs. Pure: it’s all ecology at the end of the day

I’m what other ecologists would call an ‘applied ecologist’. I collect most of my data outdoors in the field, rather than in labs or microcosms. I work predominantly in human-modified landscapes (agroecosystems). My overall research theme (ecosystem services) is considered more relevant to management than theory. And most of my papers have been published in applied and interdisciplinary journals. And, like most applied ecologists, my ability to understand and contribute to theoretical, or ‘pure’, ecology has been questioned by other ecologists.

There are plenty of logical flaws in this argument, so why does it persist? Continue reading

Assumptions of the preprints model

I’ve never considered using preprints for my own papers, I’ve never cited one, and I don’t plan to jump on the preprints bandwagon just yet. I read Terry McGlynn’s recent post on why he’s not bothering with preprints, and I agreed with every point. And then I read Sophien Kamoun’s rebuttal post, and I kind of agreed with some of those points too. I started reading the conversations happening on Twitter around these two posts and got a headache. There are some very high-profile scientists that are vocal proponents of preprints. Others are not.

With all this opposing opinion, what should an early career researcher (ECR) do?

Continue reading

Invertebrates benefit agriculture in lots of different ways

Production benefits from invertebrates (other than pollination and natural pest control) are often overlooked in agroecosystems.  There has been much more focus on the impact of insect pests. But invertebrates provide lots of other benefits in production systems. Developing sustainable farming systems is an imperative for our future – sustainable systems are those that produce food and fibre, while also enhancing human well-being and supporting ecosystem function through ecologically-sound management.  Understanding how farms can be managed to enhance production via the benefits invertebrates provide is a key to sustainable agriculture. Continue reading

Methods papers from PhDs: pan traps for pollinators

My most-cited paper so far (although not really the most-cited when you take years of publication into account) is an entomological field methods paper. It was also an unplanned paper. It came out of my PhD data, but wasn’t one of my research questions.

Methods papers are great contributions to the literature, and I highly recommend PhD students consider writing one, especially if they are working on understudied systems, or find some interesting patterns during data collection. Methods papers have much broader application to diverse fields and sub-disciplines than the PhD results themselves might. Continue reading

Insect pollinators visit wind-pollinated plants too

My new paper has just been published in Insect Conservation & Diversity.

This has been the most enjoyable paper I’ve worked on, and I’m so excited it’s now online! It’s a systematic review of observations published in peer-reviewed literature of bee and syrphid fly species collecting pollen from wind-pollinated plants. I also cite some blog posts (see my previous post on this relationship) and discuss the importance of natural history.

The paper’s had a long development process (I presented some preliminary results at the Ecological Society of Australia conference last year) and a thorough peer review (3 revisions, 9 lots of comments and I think at least 6 individual reviewers) – thank you to Insect Conservation & Diversity and my wonderful reviewers for being so patient and helpful!

My review covered 1364 plant genera in 50 families. I looked at bee and syrphid fly species, because these are the most common pollinators in most environments globally. So this is not an ‘end of the road’ list; it’s a means to highlight how little we know about the ecology and life history of most insect pollinator species. Pollination systems of so many plant species are still undescribed, and life histories of so many insect pollinator species are still unknown…lots more basic natural history research is needed! Continue reading